Infectious diseases of childhood

Written by Dr.Md.Redwanul Huq (Masum)
Monday, 16 January 2012 12:57

Infectious diseases of childhood, their symptoms and prevention of spread:

Diseases Symptoms Prevention of spread
Measles Fever, cough, weakness, runny nose and sore red eyes for a few days that is followed by a red marked rash that begins on the face and spreads down the body and lasts for 4-7 days Immunization (MMR) at 12 months and 4 years of age
Symptoms (tend to worsen at night) are-intense itching, burrows, rash, small papules and vesicles with or without eczematous plaques, pustules, or nodules typically present in the following sites: between the fingers, wrists, elbows, buttocks, around the navel, scrotum, upper thighs (Face, palms, soles, scalp and neck are affected only in infants), scratching of the lesions may result scaling, redness or sores (may be infected with bacteria) All clothing, beddings and towels should be washed by hot, soapy water and then should be dried on high heat or heat-pressed at least two or three days before starting treatment for scabies, which items can’t be washed should be placed in a plastic bag (sealed) and left in a place for few weeks, areas of the skin lesions can be soaked in cool water or covered by a cool and wet washcloth to reduce itching, persons having close contact with the infested one (including his or her sexual partner) should be treated at the same time
Gastroenteritis Increased frequency of passage of loose or watery stools, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, headache Cautious hand washing with soap and water before touching food and after using the toilet
German Measles (Rubella) May be asymptomatic, there may be low grade fever, runny nose, pink marked rash, birth defects in newborns if the mother is infected during pregnancy Immunization (MMR) at 12 months and 4 years of age
Fever, headache, body ache, runny nose, cough, sore throat Cautious hand washing, particularly after coughing, sneezing or wiping nose, immunization is also recommended
Chicken Pox Low grade fever, a rash that begins as raised pink spots which blister and scab, runny nose Immunization for chicken pox at 18 months of age, if not taken then at 12 years
Whooping Cough Running nose that is followed by constant cough that comes in bouts and this may be followed by vomiting and a whooping sound as the child gasps for air Immunization at 2, 4, 6 months and 4 years of age
Mumps Fever, enlarged tender parotid gland(s) around the jaw(s) Immunization (MMR) for mumps at 12 months and 4 years of age
Meningococcal disease Fever with headache, neck rigidity, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, rash Immunization with meningococcal C vaccine at 12 months of age
Tiny scaly patch on the skin bounded by a pink ring Cautious hand washing
Impetigo Usually affects the face, scalp and hands, tiny red spots that change into blisters which fill up with pus and become crusted Cautious hand washing
Conjunctivitis Eyes feel irritating, are red and may have watering, the eye lids may stick jointly on waking Cautious hand washing, staying away from sharing towels
Scarlet Fever
High grade fever, sore throat and vomiting that are followed by rash in 12- 36 hours Cautious hand washing
Glandular fever
Fever with headache, sore throat, weakness Cautious hand washing, staying away from sharing drinks, foods and tools, avoiding kissing
Head Lice
Scalp becomes itchy, lice may be found on the scalp, white fragments trapped near the base of the hairs All other family members, friends and classroom contacts should be examined and treated if infested with the same, clothes and bedcovers should be washed in hot water and dried in the sunlight
Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Low grade fever, blisters around the mouth, on the hands, feet and nappy area Cautious hand washing particularly after wiping the nose and using toilet
Hepatitis A Fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, yellow coloration of skin and sclera, dark urine, pale stool Cautious hand washing, immunization for hepatitis A is recommended
Molluscum Contagiosum Usually affects the face, trunk, and upper arms and legs, there are multiple small swellings that are smooth, firm and round with dimples in the center, last for 6 months-2 years Staying away from contact sports when a child has exposed swellings


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