UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)-pediatrics

Written by Dr.Md.Redwanul Huq (Masum)
Tuesday, 22 January 2013 9:47


UTI is a condition where one or more parts of the urinary system i.e. kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra become infected.

Symptoms of UTI:

  • Painful burning micturation
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Increased need to urinate at night
  • Passage of foul smelling, cloudy or red urine.
  • Fever – with chills and rigor
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Discomfort or pressure in the lower abdomen
  • Pain in the pelvic region or lower back

Signs of UTI:

May have-

  •  Fever
  • Pelvic tenderness
  • Loin tenderness.

Causes of UTI:

1. Bacterial infection-

  • Escherichia coli
  • taphylococcus aureus
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Klebsiella
  • Proteus
  • Enterococci
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  • Mycoplasma hominis.

2. Fungal infection-

  • Candida albicans
  • Cryptococcus spp

3. Parasitic infestation-

  • Trichomonas
  • Schistosoma.

Investigations in UTI:

  • Urine R/E- Pus cells are present in urinary infection
  • Urine C/S- shows growth of causative organisms(if any)
  • USG of KUB region- to know anatomical status of kidneys, ureters, bladder
  • X-ray KUB- to exclude renal, ureteric or bladder stone
  • Voiding cystourethrogram
  • Cystoscopy
  • CT scan of abdomen to exclude renal stone or any other type of obstruction
  • Blood C/S – in severe cases.

Treatment of UTI:

Symptomatic treatment of UTI-

1. Analgesics
2. Antispasmodics
3. Antipyretics

Specific treatment of UTI

UTI is treated specifically with antibiotics like –

  •  Penicillins (e.g. Amoxicillin)
  • Pivmecillinam
  • Cephalosporins (e.g. cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cefixime etc)
  • Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
  • Fluoroquinolones – e.g. ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin etc
  • Tetracyclines- e.g. doxycycline, tetracycline, minocycline.
  • Aminoglycosides- e.g. gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Fosfomycin.

Lifestyle modification to prevent urinary infection:

  •  Don’t retain your urine when there is urge to void
  • Clean the genital and urinary organs after each bowel movement
  • Avoid tight-fitting pants and under wares
  • Use sanitary napkins when needed
  • Keep the genital organs and anal areas clean before and after sexual act.
  • Urinate before and after sexual intercourse.
  • Avoid sexual relation with multiple partners to avoid urinary infection
  • Do not use perfumes or any other type of allergens near the genitalia.

Role of diet in UTI as preventive measure and as remedy:

  • Drinking of plenty of fluids like- soups, juices, coconut water along with barely water daily
  • Increased intake of vitamin C-rich foods such as guavas, bell peppers, lemons, limes,oranges etc
  • Increased intake of wholesome foods like vegetables and fruits
  • Intake of blueberries, cranberries, lignonberry as these are the home remedies for UTIs.
  • Intake of herbal teas, mint and ginger is helpful
  • Avoiding processed foods, cheese and other dairy products, tea, coffee, chocolates,spicy foods, beer and other alcoholic beverages.

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