Obesity and Hyperlipidemia

Written by Dr.Md.Redwanul Huq (Masum)
Tuesday, 03 July 2012 09:57

Obesity:

Definition of obesity:

It can be defined as deposition of excess fat in the body.

Symptoms of obesity:

1. Over weight in relation to height

2. Skin fold thickness over the triceps muscles is much more than the normal limit,

normal range : man-10mm ,woman- 13mm.

3. Symptoms of complications of obesity like:

i) Hypertension

Usually asymptomatic, but may have the following symptoms:

Headache and heaviness in head

Blurred vision

Dizziness

Neck pain

Insomnia

Nausea and vomiting

Palpitation

Irritability and lack of concentration

Chest pain

Breathlessness.

ii) Ischemic heart diseases

  • Chest pain which is –

Retrosternal (central)

Constricting, squeezing,, heavy or burning in nature.

Radiates to the arms, in between scapulae, throat, back, face or other areas

Is relieved by rest or medicine

Usually lasts for a short time (five minutes or less)

Increased by heavy meal, physical exertion, exposure to cold, emotion etc

iii) Type II DM

a) Any of the type I symptoms:

Frequent urination (Polyuria)

Extreme hunger (Polyphagia)

Excessive thirst (Polydipsia)

Unusual weight loss

Extreme fatigue and Irritability

b) Recurrent skin, gum, or bladder infections

c) Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet

d) Blurred vision

e) Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal

* Often people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms.

iv) Hyperlipidaemia- given later below.

v) Gall stones-

Pain in right upper abdomen

Nausea, vomiting

Indigestion

Flatulence

vi) Gout-

Pain and swelling of great toe or other joints

vii) Weight related musculoskeletal disorders like-

Knee joint pain

Ankle pain

viii) Stress incontinence

ix) Menstrual abnormalities

x) Exertional breathlessness

xi) Phychological symptoms like:

Anxiety

Depression

Sexual disorders

Hyperlipidemia:

Definition of hyperlipidemia:

Increased serum lipid level is known as hyperlipidemia.

Symptoms of hyperlipidemia:

Symptoms of hyperlipidemia are as following-

Xanthelasma around eyes

Tendon xanthoma

Corneal lipid arcus.

Lifestyle modification in Obesity and Hyperlipidemia:

  • Increase physical activity
  • Avoid smoking
  • Exercise regularly( at least 30 – 45 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity like walking, jogging, cycling or swimming on most days of the week),
  • Avoid extra salt
  • Stop taking alcohol
  • Control your body weight.

Diet in Obesity and Hyperlipidemia:

  • Decrease intake of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and trans fatty acids and therefore decrease intake of butter, fatty meats, margarine, dairy products made from 2% or whole milk.
  • Use oils containing monounsaturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (eg, canola and olive oil).
  • Eat at least five to seven servings of vegetables and fruits daily.
  • Eat soy products and legumes daily.
  • Eat garlic.
  • Increase intake of soluble fiber ( Present in Apples, Barley, Citrus fruits, Strawberries, Carrots, Guar,Legumes).

Food Lists for Fat -Modified Diet in obesity and hyperlipidemia:

Foods Allowed

Foods to Avoid

Skim milk or 1% low fat milk, Cheese (without salt ),Yogurt , Sour curd.

Buttermilk , Ice-cream , Desserts (made from whole milk) ,Sweets, salt , Cheese.

Leafy vegetables, Carrot, Pumpkin, Lemon like fruits, Ripen papaya.

Fried food ,Parata , Luchi ,Chips.

Meat (without fat), Fish ,Egg white, Whole Egg (1 or 2 times in a week).

Liver, Brain , Prone ,Egg yoke ,Meat (with fat) ,Chicken /Duck (with skin) ,Roast or steak ,Birani (fried rice)

Vegetable oil

Ghee, Dulda , Coconut, Chocolate, Pastry ,Cake.

Candies ,Honey , Molasses (limited amount)

Candies ,Honey , Molasses, Sugar.

Sample Menu Plan For Obesity and Hyperlipidemia

(Prepared by Mrs. Sharmin Sultana , M.S. in Food & Nutrition )

Meal

Menu

Amount

Early Morning

Tea

1 cup

Breakfast

chapatti

2

Soft cooked egg (without yolk)

One

Pulse carry

½ cup

Mixed vegetables

½ cup

Mid Morning

Skim milk

1 cup

Toast

1

Lunch

Rice (soft)

2 cup

Mixed vegetable

2½ cup

Fish carry / Chicken (low spicy)

30gm / 1piece

Pulse (Dal) carry

1 cup

Evening Tea

Tea

1 cup

Bread

2 slices

Dinner

Chapatti

Or

Rice

2 -3

Or

2 cup

Chicken carry

1piece

Mixed vegetables

2½ cup

Before bed time

Skim milk

1 cup

From this list you can get protein – 52 gm , fat – 24 gm, & total calorie -1450 Kcal.


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