Etiology of nervous system

Written by Dr.Md.Redwanul Huq (Masum)
Saturday, 03 March 2012 05:58

Causes of bilateral facial nerve palsy

1) Guillain barre syndrome (GBS),

2) Sarcoidosis,

3) Bilateral bell’s palsy (rare),

4) Any cause of mononeuritis multiplex.

Causes of LMN type of facial palsy:

1) Lesion in pons- Pontine hemorrhage, tumour, multiple sclerosis.

2) Lesion in cerebellopontine angle: Neurofibroma, acoustic neuroma,

3) Lesion in petrous part of temporal bone- trauma.

4) Lesion in face- trauma, parotid tumor, sarcoidosis.

Causes of seizures (by age):

Accordingto age of onset causes of seizures are-

1) In cases of neonates and early infants-

a) Metabolic disorders

b) Developmental disorder

c) Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

d) Maternal drug abuse

e) Head injury

f) Viral encephalitis or other CNS infections

g) Tumors of CNS

2) In cases of late infants and early childhood ages-

a) Febrile seizures

b) Genetic epilepsy syndromes

3) In cases of adolescence and early adulthood ages-

a) Head injury

b) CNS lesions (acquired)

c) CNS infections

d) Tumors of CNS

e) Alcohol withdrawal

f) Congenital anomalies of CNS

4) In cases of older adults-

a) CVD (Cerebrovascular disease)

b) Metabolic disturbances

c) Subdural hematoma or other head trauma

d) Tumors of CNS

e)Degenerative diseases.

5) Drugs and other substances that can cause seizures:

I) Anesthetics and analgesics

a) Tramadol

b) Meperidine

c) Local anesthetic agents

II) Antimicrobial drugs / antiviral drugs-

a) Quinolones

b) Beta-lactams

c) Acyclovir

d) Isoniazid

III) Psychotropic agents

a) Antipsychotics

b) Antidepressants

c) Lithium

IV) Immunomodulatory drugs

a) Tacrolimus

b) Cyclosporine

c) Interferons

V) Drugs of abuse

a) Cocaine

b) Phencyclidine

c) Amphetamines

VI) Sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal

a) Barbiturates

b) Benzodiazepines

c) Alcohol

VII) Other drugs-Radiographic contrast agents, Theophylline, Flumazenil.

Causes of tremor:

Following are the causes of tremor

i) Anxiety,

ii) Intension tremor- cerebellar lesion,

iii) Fine tremor- thyrotoxicosis,

iv) Resting tremor- Parkinsonism,

v) Flapping tremor- Hepatic encephalopathy, Respiratory failure, Renal failure.

vi) Drugs e.g. Tricyclic antidepressants,

vii) Alcohol,

viii) Heavy metal poisoning, e.g. Hg, Mn.

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