Etiology of Genitourinary system

Written by Dr.Md.Redwanul Huq (Masum)
Tuesday, 22 January 2013 04:24

Causes of Acute Nephritic Syndromes:

I. Infectious diseases-

1. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (Mostly by Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus)

2. Others (Non-Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis)-

a)Bacterial-

i) Subacute bacterial endocarditis

ii) Meningococcemia

iii) Syphilis

iv) Leprosy

b) Viral-

i) Hepatitis B

ii) Hepatitis C

iii) Mumps

iv) Measles

v) HIV

vi) Epstein bar virus

c) Parasitic-

i) Malaria

ii) Schistosomiasis

iii) Toxoplasmosis

iv) Leishmaniasis

II. Primary glomerular diseases-

1. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

2. IgA nephropathy

3. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis

4. Antiglomerular basement membrane disease

III. Systemic diseases-

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) resulting Lupus nephritis

2. Henoch-Schönlein purpura

3. ANCA (Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) small-vessel vasculitis

IV. Others-

1. Wegener’s granulomatosis
2. Microscopic polyangiitis.

Causes of Anuria:

Definition:

Total cessation of production of urine.

Causes:

1) Pre-renal causes:

a) Traumatic shock

b) Severe hemorrhage

c) Spinal anesthesia / spinal injury

d) Extensive burn

e) Dehydration

2) Renal causes:

a) Acute tubular necrosis

b) Vascular thrombosis

c) AGN

3) Post- renal (obstructive) causes: Obstruction in urinary tract.

Causes of Haematuria:

Definition:

Passage of blood through urine.

Causes of hematuria:

1) Renal causes:

a) AGN

b) Pyelonephritis

c) Tumor

d) Renal TB

e) Renal stone

f) Infarction

g) Polycystic kidney disease.

2) Ureteric causes:

a) Stone

b) Infection

c) Trauma

3) Urinary bladder causes:

a) Carcinoma

b) Schistosomiasis

c) Infection

4) Urethral causes:

a) Stone

b) Infection

c) Trauma

5) Pre-renal causes of hematuria:

a) Bleeding disorders

b) Hypertension

c) Drugs e.g. Warfarin

d) Infective endocarditis

e) Menstrual contamination.

Causes of oliguria:

a) Physiological:

1) Less fluid intake

2) Excessive sweating

b) Pathological:

a) AGN

b) Dehydration due to diarrhea, vomiting etc.

c) Nephrotic syndrome

d) Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF).

Causes of Polyuria:

Definition:

Polyuria is an increase in urinary volume (More than 3L/day) regardless of the frequency of micturation.

Causes:

a) Excessive fluid intake.

b) Osmotic hyperglycemia.

c) Cranial diabetes incipidus.

d) Nephrogenic diabetes incipidus.

e) Drugs, e.g. Diuretics, Lithium.

f) Interstitial renal disease.

Causes of Proteinuria:

Definition:

Passage of protein through urine more than normal level.

Causes of proteinuria:

1) Physiological causes of proteinuria:

a) Orthostatic or postural proteinuria.

b) Severe exercise

2) Pathological causes of proteinuria:

a) Renal causes:

i) NS

ii) AGN

iii) Pyelonephritis

iv) TB

v) Stone

vi) Polycystic kidney disease.

b) Pre-renal causes:

i) Diabetes

ii) CCF

iii) Hypertension

iv) Hypothyroidism

v) Toxaemia of pregnancy

c) Post-renal causes:

i) Prostatitis

ii) Urethritis

iii) Cystitis

iv) Calculi of ureter & bladder

d) Collagen vascular diseases:

i) SLE

ii) Juvenile RA.

Causes of UTI:

Causes of UTI are-

1. Bacterial infection-

Escherichia coli

taphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Klebsiella

Proteus

Enterococci

Proteus mirabilis

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Mycoplasma hominis.

2. Fungal infection-

Candida albicans

Cryptococcus spp

3. Parasitic infestation-

Trichomonas

Schistosoma.

Causes of Urgency:

Definition:

Urgency is a strong desire to pass urine which may be followed by incontinence if the opportunity to urinate is not available.

Causes:

a) Pregnancy

b) Extrinsic pressure on the bladder

c) Weakness of the pelvic floor muscles

d) Uterine prolapse

e) Multiple sclerosis.


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