Etiology of Genitourinary system

Written by Dr.Md.Redwanul Huq (Masum)
Tuesday, 22 January 2013 04:24

Causes of Acute Nephritic Syndromes:

I. Infectious diseases-

1. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (Mostly by Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus)

2. Others (Non-Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis)-


i) Subacute bacterial endocarditis

ii) Meningococcemia

iii) Syphilis

iv) Leprosy

b) Viral-

i) Hepatitis B

ii) Hepatitis C

iii) Mumps

iv) Measles

v) HIV

vi) Epstein bar virus

c) Parasitic-

i) Malaria

ii) Schistosomiasis

iii) Toxoplasmosis

iv) Leishmaniasis

II. Primary glomerular diseases-

1. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

2. IgA nephropathy

3. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis

4. Antiglomerular basement membrane disease

III. Systemic diseases-

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) resulting Lupus nephritis

2. Henoch-Schönlein purpura

3. ANCA (Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) small-vessel vasculitis

IV. Others-

1. Wegener’s granulomatosis
2. Microscopic polyangiitis.

Causes of Anuria:


Total cessation of production of urine.


1) Pre-renal causes:

a) Traumatic shock

b) Severe hemorrhage

c) Spinal anesthesia / spinal injury

d) Extensive burn

e) Dehydration

2) Renal causes:

a) Acute tubular necrosis

b) Vascular thrombosis

c) AGN

3) Post- renal (obstructive) causes: Obstruction in urinary tract.

Causes of Haematuria:


Passage of blood through urine.

Causes of hematuria:

1) Renal causes:

a) AGN

b) Pyelonephritis

c) Tumor

d) Renal TB

e) Renal stone

f) Infarction

g) Polycystic kidney disease.

2) Ureteric causes:

a) Stone

b) Infection

c) Trauma

3) Urinary bladder causes:

a) Carcinoma

b) Schistosomiasis

c) Infection

4) Urethral causes:

a) Stone

b) Infection

c) Trauma

5) Pre-renal causes of hematuria:

a) Bleeding disorders

b) Hypertension

c) Drugs e.g. Warfarin

d) Infective endocarditis

e) Menstrual contamination.

Causes of oliguria:

a) Physiological:

1) Less fluid intake

2) Excessive sweating

b) Pathological:

a) AGN

b) Dehydration due to diarrhea, vomiting etc.

c) Nephrotic syndrome

d) Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF).

Causes of Polyuria:


Polyuria is an increase in urinary volume (More than 3L/day) regardless of the frequency of micturation.


a) Excessive fluid intake.

b) Osmotic hyperglycemia.

c) Cranial diabetes incipidus.

d) Nephrogenic diabetes incipidus.

e) Drugs, e.g. Diuretics, Lithium.

f) Interstitial renal disease.

Causes of Proteinuria:


Passage of protein through urine more than normal level.

Causes of proteinuria:

1) Physiological causes of proteinuria:

a) Orthostatic or postural proteinuria.

b) Severe exercise

2) Pathological causes of proteinuria:

a) Renal causes:

i) NS

ii) AGN

iii) Pyelonephritis

iv) TB

v) Stone

vi) Polycystic kidney disease.

b) Pre-renal causes:

i) Diabetes

ii) CCF

iii) Hypertension

iv) Hypothyroidism

v) Toxaemia of pregnancy

c) Post-renal causes:

i) Prostatitis

ii) Urethritis

iii) Cystitis

iv) Calculi of ureter & bladder

d) Collagen vascular diseases:

i) SLE

ii) Juvenile RA.

Causes of UTI:

Causes of UTI are-

1. Bacterial infection-

Escherichia coli

taphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus saprophyticus




Proteus mirabilis

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Mycoplasma hominis.

2. Fungal infection-

Candida albicans

Cryptococcus spp

3. Parasitic infestation-



Causes of Urgency:


Urgency is a strong desire to pass urine which may be followed by incontinence if the opportunity to urinate is not available.


a) Pregnancy

b) Extrinsic pressure on the bladder

c) Weakness of the pelvic floor muscles

d) Uterine prolapse

e) Multiple sclerosis.

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