Written by Dr.Md.Redwanul Huq (Masum)
Sunday, 26 June 2011 14:16

What is Diabetes Mellitus:

Diabetes Mellitus,often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin,or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced in the body.

Symptoms of Diabetes:

Type 1 Diabetes-

  • Frequent urination (Polyuria)
  • Extreme hunger (Polyphagia)
  • Excessive thirst (Polydipsia)
  • Unusual weight loss
  • Extreme fatigue and Irritability

Type 2 Diabetes* –

  • Any of the type 1 symptoms
  • Recurrent skin, gum, or bladder infections
  • Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet
  • Blurred vision
  • Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal

*Often people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms.

How to control Diabetes (Prevention of Diabetes):

There are many significant steps that are to be taken for prevention of diabetes in non-diabetic individuals. These steps are given here which will also help diabetic patients to know how to control diabetes.

Lifestyle modification in Diabetes:

  • Monitor your blood glucose level regularly and take drug treatment from your registered physician.
  • Exercise regularly( at least 30 – 45 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity like walking, jogging, cycling or swimming on most days of the week)
  • Avoid smoking, alcohol
  • Control your body weight.

Diet in Diabetes:

  • Take more starchy carbohydrate foods (e.g. rice, bread, potatoes, pasta or cereals)
  • Eat much fruits (specially citrus fruits) and vegetables
  • Reduce sugar intake
  • Try to avoid fatty foods in diet in diabetes
  • Don’t take extra salt.

Sample diet plan:

(Prepared by Mrs. Sharmin Sultana , M.S. in Food & Nutrition )


  •  Skim milk-½ cup
  • Whole wheat bread/toast-2 slices
  • Soft cooked egg-1
  • Margarine-1 teaspoon


  • Fruit – fresh or tinned without sugar, like orange-1
  • Soup
  • Toast/ baked potato/chapattis/salted biscuit
  • Large portion salad or vegetables.


  • Rice-2/3 cup
  • Small portion lean meat, chicken or fish.
  • Large portion vegetables or salad.


  • Soup, for example broth, lentil, vegetable.
  • Fruit – fresh, stewed or tinned without sugar
  • Skim milk-½ cup


  • Whole wheat bread / chapatti – 2/3 slices
  • Chicken/chopped beef-medium sized 2 pieces/fish-1 piece
  • Large portion vegetables or salad.


If you require you can take as bedtime snack from the following:

  •  Two plain salted biscuits/
  • Toast/
  • Fresh fruit/
  • Two plain biscuits.

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